Oral Surgery is one of the most comprehensive areas of Dental Medicine. It is specialty dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of alterations, lesions and oral pathologies.
Oral Surgery is responsible for all the surgical procedures related to the extraction of teeth that are impossible to maintain in the oral cavity, namely teeth with very extensive and non-restorable caries, teeth without bone support, teeth included, among others.
All areas of the Dental Medicine are articulated allowing a multidisciplinary treatment in which implantology, periodontology, orthodontics and prosthodontics may be included.
This specialty can be confronted with very complex clinical situations. For this reason the clinical team may also include an anesthetist, allowing some interventions to be performed under sedation, with total comfort and patient safety.
It may be necessary to extract a tooth for several reasons such as; existence of extensive caries and impossibility of restoration; severe bone loss or the need to gain space in the dental arch. These surgeries are usually performed under local anesthesia, depending on the degree of complexity of the same.
They are considered complex extractions whenever to extract a tooth it is necessary to cut bone or tooth. Teeth very destroyed, that are ankylosed ie they are “glued” to the bone, and even impacted teeth, ie teeth that have not erupted normally require complex extractions.
Teeth can be included due to lack of space in the arch, because they have an abnormal anatomy or are poorly positioned in the bone. If not removed, the constant pressure caused by the attempted eruption can cause a number of problems such as reabsorption or decay in the surrounding teeth, inflammation, pain and crowding (poor positioning of the teeth). This problem is quite common in wisdom teeth, the last to be born.
Facial Infections Treatment
Caused by microorganisms such as fungi or bacteria, orofacial infections can affect the oral cavity or neighboring areas (maxillary sinus, salivary glands, etc.).
Although small infections can be resolved through the administration of antibiotics, the more complex ones require surgical intervention.
Removal of Cysts and Tumors
The cysts and tumors of the oro-facial region may be related to infected or included teeth but may also have no relation or origin in any tooth.
Usually these lesions do not cause pain and are “discovered” on radiographs or check-up appointments. When they appear they should be removed and sent for analysis for identification.
Removal of cysts or tumors requires surgical intervention.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Salivary Gland Pathologies
The salivary glands are responsible for the production of saliva. The most frequent dysfunction results in dry mouth (xerostomia). With consequences for chewing, swallowing, nutrition, speech and breathing. In its origin may be bacterial or viral infections, systemic disorders (Sjögren’s syndrome, HIV, lupus, diabetes or Alzheimer’s) tumors or interference of certain drugs. The reduction of saliva production also has an effect on the risk of developing cavities, since it acts as a “tooth protector”. To determine the cause of salivary gland diseases, the most commonly used diagnostic tools are Rx, computed tomography and salivary flow assessment.
Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction
Located near the ear, the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) establishes the union of the mandible with the skull. The dysfunctions of this joint may be related to problems of bad dental relation that cause imbalance in the joints, muscles and ligaments. Patients with this disorder usually complain of the following symptoms: headaches, ears, eyes, face and neck, as well as difficulties in chewing, tinnitus, nausea and dizziness. The treatment of TMD dysfunction involves the elimination of causal factors, so it is often necessary to articulate with orthodontic treatment, with implantology interventions, to replace missing teeth, or with Orthognathic surgery.
Extractions of impacted teeth
Sometimes the teeth do not erupt due to lack of space in the arcade getting impacted in the bone. In these cases, and after creating space in the arcade with the use of orthodontic appliance, it may be necessary to expose them and pull them so that they position themselves correctly and next to the others. It is understood by orthodontic traction whenever you need this surgery exposure of a tooth to integrate the braces.This phenomenon often occurs with upper canines due to the fact that they are the last to erupt in the anterior region of the maxilla.
Complex clinical situations resulting from infections or accidents with significant loss of bone structure may require bone graft surgery.
These interventions are performed in an integrated way with other specialties, namely maxillofacial or general surgery for the eventual harvesting of bone to be grafted.
At MALO CLINIC we always try to avoid using grafts for rehabilitation, since we have a wide variety of implants and other solutions in case of problems or absences of teeth. However, the need for bone presence is not limited to the placement of implants. Large bone defects, oro-antral communications, jaw fracture injuries are examples of clinical situations in which these procedures can be used.
There are people who have a greater number of teeth, the so-called super-numerary teeth?
There may be impacted teeth out of the jaws?
The extraction of impacted teeth can be simpler and faster than the extraction of erupted teeth?
It is not always necessary to administer antibiotics for the extraction of infected teeth?